Routine castrations may either be performed in the standing (young horse only) or anesthetized horse whereby standing castrations are always associated with a greater risk to both the horse as well as the surgeon. Castrations in older horses (> 2 years) should be performed under general anesthesia to reduce the risk of post-operative complications. Castrations are often performed leaving an open drainage port, which requires that the horse will delay the return to normal activity. If the castration site is closed horse typically may return to work within 10 – 14 days.
Castration of the crytpchid stallion can be performed under general anesthesia either via a conventional inguinal surgical incision or via laparoscopy (minimally invasive approach).
Bladder stones are relatively common condition seen in mares and stallions and require surgical removal either during a standing procedure or under general anesthesia.
Bladder Ruptures in Neonatals
Bladder ruptures are potential injury that can happen during the birthing process in newborn foals. Once the neonatal foal has been stabilized metabolically, the bladder can be repaired.
Patent Urachus in Young Foals
Stallions or geldings with pale non-pigmented skin often develop squamous cell carcinomas on the penis which may require a partial or more extensive penile amputation to prevent the spread of the tumor and to retain function of the penis.
Hernias can happen in the umbilical region or the inguinal region of the foal and in most cases will require repair to prevent intestinal entrapment in the hernial sac.
Urine Pooling Surgery
Older mares with sloping vulvar conformations may experience a condition called urine pooling in the vaginal vault which can lead to uterine infections and unsightly urine spraying. The urine pooling surgery helps to channel the urine out of the vagina and prevents the pooling of urine.